Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common bacterial causative agents of sexually transmitted disease (STD).
C. trachomatis is a gram-negative bacteria that causes urethritis, prostatitis and epididymitis in men. In females, cervicitis, pelvic inflammation disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and acute or chronic pelvic pain are frequent complications. Acute infections are more frequent in men because women often present no symptom of infection. However, prolonged untreated C. trachomatis in infected women can lead to infertility. It can also lead to conjunctivitis and pulmonary complications in neonates.
N. gonorrhoeae, a fastidious gram-negative diplococci, is the causative agent of gonorrhoea. Symptoms of infection with NG differ depending on the site of infection. Infection of the genitals in male can result in a purulent discharge from the genitals and a burning sensation during urination. In females, NG can lead to pelvic inflammation disease, which may result in infertility if left untreated. However, about 10% of infected males and 80% of infected females are asymptomatic.
Detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae DNA by nucleic acid amplification technology is more sensitive and applicable to different sample types than culture, especially in screening for low grade infections in asymptomatic individuals who would not ordinarily seek clinical care.