- RESPIRATORY BACTERIA & VIRUSES
- SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION
- TROPICAL DISEASES
- IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE VIRUSES
- BLOOD-BORNE VIRUSES
- ENTERIC VIRUSES
Leptospirosis is a widespread bacterial zoonotic disease in humans caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. The clinical spectrum of the infection ranges from sub clinical to severe illness with high mortality rate. Human Leptospirosis causes severe multi organ dysfunction that may end in multi organ failure and death. More than 200 Leptospira interrogans and other Leptospira species serovars have been identified as pathogenic. The pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leptospira species are indistinguishable morphologically or by growth characteristics. It has long been known that Leptospires spreads almost immediately from the site of entry of skin or mucous membrane, via lymphatics to the blood stream, where they circulate to all tissues. Early diagnosis is essential as the antibiotic treatment is most effective when it is initiated early in the course of disease. Failure to recognize acute leptospirosis means a delay in the initiation of its therapy and possibly ensuing severe complications such as Weil’s syndrome. If the host survives the acute infection, septicemia and multiplication of organism persist until the development of immunoglobulin in plasma, followed by rapid immune clearance.